Cannabis sativa is an herbaceous species originating from Central Asia. Among other names, it’s also known as include Marijuana, Herb, Weed, Pot, and Mary Jane. This fast-growing plant draws a lot of interest from the construction, textile, and pharmaceutical sectors. While some of its uses are purely recreational, it also has widespread applications for medical use such as cannabis oils. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive part of cannabis. There are other 483 known compounds, which include at least 65 cannabinoids.
There are numerous strains of cannabis, each bred for specific traits, often intended to produce particular effects in the consumer. The following are the five different types of cannabis and their medical uses:
1. Cannabis Sativa
This species originates from Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. The plant is slender and taller than Cannabis Indica. Cannabis Sativa grows to about 25 feet. It has long, narrow, light-green serrated leaves. Cannabis sativa L is commonly known as hemp. It’s typically cultivated for industrial use. It’s regulated to ensure the plant contains less than 0.3% THC. This plant is known for inducing energy in a consumer. On the other hand, Cannabis Indica is known for producing a calming effect on its consumers. It grows better in warm climates with long seasons and has long flowering cycles.
Cannabis Sativa is best known for its characteristic “head” high. Sativa effects are described as “head” high. This is because its effects are mainly hallucinogenic and are felt in the brain. Indica effects are mostly felt on the general body. Sativa effects can be described as an uplifting infusion of high creative energy. This strain interrupts sleep at night or one’s ability to settle down. It makes one want to create something constructive and is recommended for daytime use.
Whereas the Indica strain makes people relaxed and calm, Sativa makes people want to get off the couch. People prone to anxiety should avoid smoking strong Sativas. They should seek out Sativa-dominant hybrids that feature Indica traits to counterbalance the Sativa effects. For those who prefer to be focused and energized without being jittery or anxious, Sativa hybrids offer them the best of both worlds.
2. Cannabis Indica
Indica is among the two main types of cannabis plants. Unlike Sativa, Indica creates a sedative and relaxing effect known as a “body high.” Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French naturalist, first came up with the term “indica” in 1785 to differentiate between the non-psychoactive Hemp plant growing in Europe, and the intoxicating cannabis variety grown in India. It’s also known as the “Sleepy” Strain Marijuana. This species of cannabis grows faster, but is shorter than the Sativa species. It has broad, serrated, dark green leaves.
It’s also bushier and grows up to 19 feet high. It does better in cold climates with short, flowering cycles. It’s known to produce a calming and soothing effect on its consumers. Cannabis Indica has lovely healing qualities. It can help calm anxiety, alleviate pain, treat insomnia, minimize muscle spasms, induce muscle relaxation, and relieve headaches and migraine.
3. Cannabis Ruderalis
Cannabis Ruderalis is barely talked about, although it’s one of the primary marijuana species. It’s pretty short in stature and grows to a height of 20-25 inches. It has very thick foliage, similar to Indica, and mainly grows in the northern hemisphere. It has light-green leaves, is stalky, short and shaggy. It’s got a swift and early-flowering cycle. It grows in the northern hemisphere and doesn’t have much time to mature before the cold weather sets in. Ruderalis produces auto-flowers and isn’t known for high psychotropic, perhaps the reason little is said about it.
Unlike the other different types of cannabis, it’s primarily used as a source of genetic material by cultivators and breeders. Ruderalis is used to enhance other hybrid strains, thanks to its quick, auto-flowering trait.
4. Industrial Hemp Marijuana (Cannabis)
Industrial hemp, simply known as hemp, is typically found in the northern part of the world. Hemp originates from the Cannabis Sativa species that are specifically grown for industrial use and various products. It’s one of the fastest-growing plants. Hemp was spun into usable fibre 10,000 years ago and can be refined into different commercial products such paper, paint, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, food, biofuel and animal feed. Hemp has a THC content level of below 0.3%. It’s, therefore, not worth smoking.
5. Hybrid Cannabis
Years of intense hybridization and mixing has created a broad spectrum across the three main Cannabis types. Hybrids are widely spread and extremely popular. They have good qualities of both Indicas and Sativas. They are bred to produce higher yields and pest-resistant strains.
There are male, female, and hermaphrodite cannabis plants, which are difficult to distinguish. Male cannabis has faster sexual development. Along with Sativa and Indica, Hybrid cannabis strains play a significant role in contributing to the diversity of marijuana plants. Knowing the benefits and traits of hybrid cannabis helps the consumer select better medicine for particular ailments and illnesses. It also enables the tailoring of recreational experiences. While Indica and Sativa strains offer either relaxing or energizing options, with hybrid strains, you get a blend, and the choice needn’t be either.
Led by cannabinoids, the cannabis plant is composed of numerous chemical compounds that bring out a unique harmony of effects. Cannabinoids such as CBD and THC are the main drivers of cannabis’ recreational and therapeutic effects. CBD is a non-intoxicating compound known to alleviate pain, inflammation, anxiety, and other medical ailments. THC makes you feel high, hungry and relieves symptoms such as nausea, pain, and more.